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The Homoeopathic Compenidum
by David Little

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Part 4: The Animal World
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The Remedies of the Animal World

Samuel Hahnemann introduced the animal kingdom to the homoeopathic materia medica in 1817 with the introduction of the Mullusca, Sepia, the cuttlefish. Sepia is included in the antipsoric remedies published in the Chronic Diseases in 1828 and has become one of our constitutional polychrests. The Founder's three animal remedies were Sepia (ink of the cuttlefish), Ambra Grisea (the bilious, fatty excretion of a sperm whale), and Calcarea Carbonica Ostrearum (oyster shell). The animal remedies form the smallest number of homoeopathic remedies and possibly the most homogeneous of the three kingdoms. To get a larger understanding of the animal remedies our focus shifts to study the nature of their sources and their habitats. Farrington offers us a clue to the animal character in his Comparative Materia Medica, in Lachesis and other Allied Remedies, starting page 317.

"Medicines derived from the animal kingdom act energetically and rapidly. They vary in intensity from the fatal snakebite to coral, sponges, etc., which are more or less modified by their mineral constituents"

The animal remedies are the most rapidly acting and destructive family. The spectrum begins with the poisons of the Ophidians (Elaps, Crot-h., Lach., Naja), Arachnida (Lat-m., Mygal., Tarent.), Insecta (Apis, Canth., Vesp.), Medusae (Medus., Physala-p.) and runs to the slower acting remedies that are influenced by their mineral constituents. For example, some mineral influenced remedies are Corallium Rubrum (Calcium and Iron), Spongia (Iodine), and Calcarea Carb./Ostr (Calcium). As in the plant remedies we find that poisons act most quickly and violently while those with strong mineral affinities tend to be slower acting. This shows the suitability of certain animal remedies for crisis and others for more chronic miasms and degenerative diseases. In general, all foreign animal substances that are not nutritional act toxically on the human organism and invoke strong, instinctive, defensive reactions. E. A, Farrington offers a few more clues about the animal remedies in his work, A Clinical Materia Medica, a study of Homoeopathy from the view of the three worlds. Vide Lecture II, Animal Kingdom, page 25.

"Many of the animal poisons are distinguished by the violence and intensity of their action, and by the decided alterations which they produce in both structure and function. The blood is deranged in its circulation, composition and quality. The nervous system suffers and even the lower tissues are affected. The whole tendency of these remedies is to produce diseases, WHICH ARE NEVER OF ASTHENIC CHARACTER AND ALWAYS OF A DESTRUCTIVE FORM, tending thus to local as well as to general death of the body. We therefore, look upon these poisons as medicines which suit deep-seated diseases, such for example, as are accompanied by changes in the quality of the blood; such as profoundly affects the nervous centres."

Since the ancient Greeks, healers have categorized reactions of the vital force into the functional polarities, sthenic (hyper-functioning), and asthenic (hypo-functioning). These categories are symbolized by the polarities of the primordial homoeomeries, fire and water, as well as earth and air. In general, the more poisonous an animal substance, the more sthenic the initial symptoms it produces in the provings. As the mineral constituents become more dominant the nature of the symptoms align with the mineral family. For example, Spongia reflects the sthenic tendency of Iodine and the Halogen group (17-VII), while Calcarea Carb./Ostr. is more similar to the more asthenic symptoms of the Earth Alkali group (2-IIA).

The Development of the Non Chordate Phylums

Azoic and Archeozoic Eras

Zoology records the evolutionary history of the animal world. The Azoic Era (5000*) begins with the origin of the Earth and the appearance of inorganic elements and organic molecules. In the Archeozoic Era (5000-3500) viruses formed a bridge between the inorganic minerals and the organic molecules and the first living cells appeared. The Animal Kingdom is divided into two major categories, the Non Chordates (no neural tube), and Chordates (neural tube-notocord**).

*Numbers represent number of millions of years in the past.

**Greek; Chordate Gk. Chorda-a string, or Latin cordatus, a cord. Notochord, Gk. noton-back, chorde-cord). This is the neural tube that evolves into the spine and brain.

In the Five-Kingdom classification, bacteria and blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) are in the Monera Kingdom and the protozoans are in the Protist Kingdom. Most of the nosodes come from viruses and bacteria although Psorinum is an animal mite (Insecta). The nosodes form their own family portrait and will be dealt with in the following installment. The Fungi Kingdom is separated from the Plant Kingdom, and the animals are divided into invertebrates and vertebrates. The three lower kingdoms represent the most primitive forms of life.

Proterozoic & Paleozoic Era

By the Proterozoic Era (2000-600) viruses, bacteria, and blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) flourished in the Precambrian seas. This period introduced the Porifera, (sponges), Coelenterata, (corals, medusae, sea anemone, hydromedusae), Platyhelminthes (flat worms, flukes, tape worms), Ascheliminthes (round worms) and Annelida (jointed worms). The Paleozoic Era (600-225) was one of great expansion among the animal phylums and plant species in the seas and their first adaptation to the land environment. The Paleozoic Era includes 6 periods.

1. First is the Cambrian Period (600-500) where viruses, bacteria, blue-green algae and red algae flourished and the 25 non-chordate invertebrate phyla became established. This period saw the appearance of Mullusca (oysters, squids) Echinodermata (starfish and sea urchins) as well as early Arthropoda classes, the Crustacea [crabs), Insecta (cockroach), Arachnida (scorpions, spiders), Chilopoda (centipedes) and Diplopoda (millipedes).

2. The Ordovician Period (500-435) brought the origin of the first chordates, the lower Chordata (rudimentary notochord), or Acraniata (no cranium), and the higher Chordata or Craniata (notocord, vertebrae, and cranium). The lower chordates are divided into two classes, the Urochordata (notochord present only in larval tail i.e. sea squirt) and the Cephalochordata (notochord along entire body i.e. lancelet). In the lower chordatas the neural tube is in its rudimentary spinal development. The higher Chordata or Craniata (notochord, vertebrae and cranium) are divided into the Agnatha (without jaws, the jawless and armored fishes) and the Gnathostomata (jaws and paired appendages), which includes all other vertebrates. In the higher chordates the neural tube is connect to a brain that is contained in the bony skull.

3. The Silurian Period (435-395) saw the origin of the jawed fish and Arthropods, wingless Insecta, and scorpion-like Arachnida and the first Lichens moved to land. This interesting plant is a symbiotic combination of algae and fungi. The Insecta, Arachnida and Lichens adapted to the new environment and evolved.

4. The Devonian Period (395-345) is called the Age of Fishes as Pisces ruled the oceans. This period spawned the origin of the Amphibia that left the seas seeking new territory on land. The fern allies and ferns developed along with the early gymnosperms like the Cycads and Cordaitales.

5. The Carboniferous Period (345-275) is called the Age of Amphibians. The great swamps and trees supported the amphibian transition from sea to land and eventually became coal beds. The close of this period witnessed the origin of the first winged insects and reptiles.

6. The Permian Period (275-225) witnessed the mass extinction of many of the marine invertebrates. At the same time, modern Insecta and Reptiles flourished on the land. This period saw the evolution of the first deciduous plants.

The Mesozoic (Middle) Era (230-65)

The Mesozoic Era began with heavy glaciation and the extinction of many previous species. It encompasses the rise and fall of the dinosaurs, the origin of mammals, and the rise of modern birds and placental mammals. The Mesozoic Era is divided into three periods, the Triassic Period, the Jurassic Period, and the Cretaceous Period.

1. The Triassic period (230-180) experienced heavy glaciation that caused the primitive gymnosperms to give way to the higher gymnosperms. In this epoch the primitive amphibians became extinct and the great reptiles like the dinosaurs appeared.

2. The Jurassic period (180-135) is called the Age of the Reptiles. It gave birth to the first toothed birds and mammals and gave rise to the flowering plants (angiosperms).

3. The Cretaceous period (135-65) covers the extinction of the giant reptiles and toothed birds and the origin to the ancestors of modern birds and placental mammals.

Cenozoic Era (65-0)

The Cenozoic Era (65-0) is from sixty-five million years ago to the present day. This period introduced the modern monocotyledon and dicotyledon plants as well as birds and higher mammals. This era is divided into the Tertiary and Quaternary Periods.

The Tertiary Period

1. The Paleocene epoch (65-54) introduced the archaic mammals and first primates.

2. Eocene epoch (54-38) diversified placental mammals, and brought the birth of the ancestors of modern horses, cattle, elephant, crocodiles, turtles, etc.

3. Oligocene epoch (38-23) saw the appearance of monkeys and apes and the ancestors of cats, dogs, bears, etc.

4. Miocene epoch (23-6) found mammals flourishing and the early human-like apes (hominids) appeared.

5. Pliocene epoch (6-2) gave rise to land mammals. Marine life was fully established as it is today.

The Quaternary Period

1. The Pleistocene epoch (2 million-10, 000 years) witnessed the extinction of the great mammals and the rise of early human beings.

2. The Holocene epoch (10,000-to present) is called the Age of Man, which is the home to modern humans, mammals, birds, fishes and insects. Farming and animal husbandry developed. The year 2000 is at the turning point for humanity, as the species shall either find solutions to the worldwide ecological and social problems or face extinction.

Classification of Human Beings

All racial groups, Mongoloid, Negroid, Caucasoid and Australoid, are stocks of the species Homo sapiens, which is classified as follows:

1. The Kingdom Animalia as humans require complex organic food and pass out faeces and nitrogenous waste materials.

2. Subkingdom Exmetazoa as humans have digestive tract, tissues and organic systems.

3. Phylum Chordata as humans have notocord and visceral pouches in the embryonic stage and dorsal hollow brain and nerve chord throughout life.

4. Subphylum Vertebrate or Craniata as humans have a cranium around the brain and a segmented vertebral column around the spinal cord.

5. Division Gnathostomata as humans have jaws to support the mouth.

6. Superclass Tetrapoda as they have four limbs.

7. Class Mammalia as humans have hair, pinnae, and mammary glands.

8. Subclass Theria as human beings are viviparous (live birth).

9. Infraclass Eutheria as humans have true placenta and prolonged intrauterine development.

10. Order Primates as humans have nails over the digits.

11. Suborder Anthropoidea as humans have rounded head and facial muscles that provide emotional expression.

12. Family Hominidae because humans have erect posture, bipedal locomotion and forelimbs (arms) that are shorter then hind limbs (legs).

The Non Chordate Phylums

The Non Chordates are divided into 25 phylums of which 8 are in the Homoeopathic Materia Medica. The phylums are listed from the lowest to highest order.

1. Porifera, sponges (Bad., Spong.).

2. Coelenterata, corals, medusae, sea anemone, hydromedusae (Corr-r., Medus., Physala).

3. Platyhelminthes, flat worms, flukes, tape worms (isopathy).

4. Aschelminthes, round worms (isopathy).

5. Annelida, jointed worms (Sanuisuga-leech).

The Porifera and Coelenterata are sometimes combined and called the Radiata based on their radial symmetries. The Porifera, and the Coelenterata corals, are very strongly affected by their mineral constituents and reflect their mineral analogs. Medusa and Physala are remedies that show the rapid onset and symptoms associated with the animal poisons. The worm remedies are old isopathic remedies in many cultures and were experimented with by the homoeopathic-isopaths of the 19th century. We have no provings of the helminthes although they cause serious diseases in their human host. Perhaps this is a lacuna in our animal materia medica?

The next important groups are the Mullusca and Echinodermata. They share many homoeopathic symptoms and are suitable for some similar conditions. The Murex and Cuttlefish share many symptoms. The remedies made from oyster and conch shell show the characteristic symptoms of their related mineral remedies, particularly the Calcium group. The starfish shares their seabed environment with the oysters. These deep acting antimiasmic remedies have an action on the phlegmatic temperament, the hydrogenoid constitution, and the sycotic miasm. Such remedies particularly reflect mistunements of the watery element, the genitourinary system, and venereal diseases.

6. Mullusca Class:

1. Cephalopoda (Sep.).

2. Pelecypoda (Calc-c-ostr., Calc-pecten.).

3. Gastropoda (Conch, Murx., Helix.).

7. Echinodermata (Aster.)

The Arthropoda is the next important phylum. The Homoeopathic Materia Medica includes remedies from four of the five classes of Arthropoda. This phylum develops a homogeneous set of signs and symptoms, which is similar throughout its classes. At the same time each class of Arthropoda has its own unique family characteristics.

8. Arthropoda Class

1. Crustacea (Astac., Hom., Lim., Onis).

2 Insecta (Apis, Blatta, Canth., Coc-c., Vesp.).

3. Arachnida (Androc., Lat-m., Mygal., Tarent., Ther.).

4. Chilopoda (Scolopendra-centipede).

The symptoms of the Crustacea, Astac. (crayfish), Hom. (lobster) and Limi (king crab) are very similar as they reflect the nettle and bilious rash of the shellfish family. All of these remedies are very allergenic and manifest a similar pattern of symptoms. Onis, the sole land Crustacea, develops symptoms more like the Insecta. The Insecta and Arachnida are easy recognizable by their family symptoms although each remedy has unique differential symptoms. The only Chilopoda remedy at this time is the centipede.

The Chordate Phylums

The Craniata of the Phylum Chordata include the subphylum Vertebrata and the division, Gnathostomata. This includes the Pisces and the Tetrapods, which are divided into the four classes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. They all share the complete neural tube but the brain and nervous system demonstrates different states of evolution in the fish, land animals, and human beings.

The Two Superclasses

Pisces and Tetrapods

1. Pisces, Class Osteicthyes (Eryth., Gad., Ol-j., Trach-d, Trach-v.).

2. Tetrapods Class

1. Amphibia (Bufo, Salam., Trito.).

2. Reptilia Order

A. Lacertilia, lizards (Amp., Helo., Lacer.).

B. Ophidians (Elaps., Crot-h, Lach., Naja, Vipera).

3. Aves (Corvus Corax Principalus (corpus) and (sanguinious), Serinus Canaria, Indian Eagle, Ovi Gallinae Pellicula, Calcarea Ovi Testi).

4. Mammalia (Ambr., Carb-an., Cast., Hipp., Meph., Mosch., Ol-an.).

A. Milks (Lac-c., Lac-d., etc. )

The use of a homoeopathic remedy often depends on its source. For example Ol-j is made from the bile of a Codfish. The bile remedies (Ol-j., Fel-tauri) have a deep effect on the hepatic system, digestion, and choleric temperament. Trachinus is a poison fish whose sting acts similarly to the other animal venoms. The poisonous fish, lizards, snakes, and spiders all cause rapid destruction of tissue and chronic sequels. The Mammalia includes remedies made from preputial sacs like Beaver (Cast.) and Musk Dear (Mosch.), as well as the anal sac of a skunk (Meph.). Of course, Moschus is sexual and hysterical while the Mephitis is nauseated and revolted. The milks form a remedy group within the mammal family and reflect many animal world characteristics. This can clearly be noted in Lac-c, which is the most proven and clinically confirmed of the milks.

Therapeutic Hints

Acute and Chronic Diseases

The animal remedies are suitable for both acute and chronic complaints depending on constitution, disease conditions, and circumstances. The heroic poisons mimic the most dangerous states of acute diseases, virulent miasms, and toxic states. This includes virulent miasms like influenza, scarlet fever, yellow fever, meningitis, diphtheria, typhoid, ebola, and other potentially fatal acute diseases. The rapid destruction of the blood and vital centers is almost immediate. The rapid movement and destructiveness of the animal world simulates this activity when compared with the more stationary plants and stable minerals. The animal remedies are suitable for crisis, acute disorders and miasms, and destructively chronic diseases. The animal remedies reach the most destructive phases of pathology, like ulceration and necrosis, very quickly. In general, the plants mimic the rapid development of crisis and acute diseases while the mineral remedies are slower and more insidious like chronic states.

The animal world remedies reflect both acute and chronic states in equal measure. As the animals are the highest order they reflect both the attributes of the minerals and the plants they depend on for life. They are especially indicated in potentially fatal crises or acute disorders as well as chronic diseases that have the character of the rapid destruction of organic tissue. A chronic disease with the tendency toward acute-like crisis and destructive organic pathology suits the animal remedies well. The Crustacea (Astac., Hom., Onis), mistunes the choleric temper and produces bilious constitutions and causes allergenic liver-rash and hives (shellfish reactions). The Insecta (Apis, Canth., Vesp.) are famous for intense burning, heat, redness, and other signs of fiery inflammation. The Arachnida (Lat-m., Tarent.), and Reptiles (Helo.), Ophidians (Crot-h., Lach., Naja) share the rapid onsets and destructive degenerative states of the venomous creatures. If one survives the potentially fatal crisis the poisons move on to chronic sequels and progressive degenerative diseases. Many of these poisons are known for the darker reds and blue-black colors of necrotic degeneration associated with the destruction of the blood and excess of atrabilious humour.

Animals and Constitutions

The animal remedies of the materia medica reflect many clear constitutional types that are well known by their mind/body portraits. e. g. Ambr., Apis, Aster., Bufo, Calc-c., Carb-an., Lac-c., Lach., Sep., Tarent., etc.. The first animal portrait was of the Mollusk, Sepia, the Cuttlefish. Hahnemann wrote how the brownish-black ink of the Sepia produced a dejected, weepy, gloomy melancholic state that is pensive, anxious, apprehensive, and suffers aversion to work and indifference to the family. Melancholia is an excess of "black bile" that is associated with feeling "blue" or suffering "dark moods". Sepia also affects the weepy phlegmatic humour and mistunes the sexual system producing a downward pressure as if everything would protrude from the pelvis. The complexion is yellowish and the face often has a yellow or brown saddle across the nose and cheeks demonstrating the hormone imbalances associated with this remedy. The cuttlefish has a luminescent brownish body with white spots and stripes and a beautiful violet lateral fin that acts as a colorful, scintillating cape. The image of the Cuttlefish squirting its dark brown cloud as a 'smoke screen' to attack prey and hide from an enemy is symbolic of many of the symptoms of Sepia. These images are part of Sepia's signatura rerum.

Animal Remedies and Chronic Miasms

The animal remedies play an important role in the treatment of chronic miasms. The animal substances have a clear action on the non-venereal and venereal miasms. Bufo, Lac-c., Lach., and Sep. have been confirmed in all the four miasms Hahnemanni. The animals reflect some of the most degenerative and corrupted states of the miasmic process. They over stimulate the life force producing sthenic states and plethora that become progressively destructive in nature and may end in exhaustion. The animal remedies produce some of the foulest, vilest and most degenerative states of physical and mental pathology. The clinically confirmed antimiasmic remedies are relatively few in number so they are listed below:

1. Psora (Ambr., Apis, Bufo, Calc-ostr., Canth., Carb-an., Coc-c., Crot-h., Elaps, Lac-c., Lac-d., Lach., Sep.).

2. Pseudopsora (Bufo, Calc-ostr., Carb-an., Lac-c., Lac-d., Lach., Ol-j., Sep., Ther.).

3. Sycosis (Apis, Aran., Aster., Bufo, Calc-ostr., Cast., Canth., Coc-c., Crot-h., Elaps, Dor., Lac-c., Lach., Mosch., Murx., Ol-j., Sac-l., Sep.).

4. Syphilis (Apis, Bad., Bufo, Canth., Cor-r., Crot-h., Eryth., Lac-c., Lach., Sep., Spong.).

Animal Temperament

The mineral remedies have a direct effect on the intellect and intelligence (Geist) while the plants initially mistune the emotional disposition (Gemut). The animal remedies have a profound action on the animal instinct, the vital force, and human sexuality. These remedies deeply affect the subconscious and instinctive levels of the human being ruled directly by the vital force. The animals stir primitive subconscious emotions over which the rational spirit has little control. This struggle is between the higher neocortex ruled by the rational spirit and the old instinctive reptilian and mammalian brain centers. In reality such troubled souls are fighting with the "beasts" within them. This conflict can bring out some of the lowest qualities of a human being. Farrington offer more hints in his A Clinical Materia Medica.

"You will find, too, that these animal poisons are apt to affect the mind, especially the emotions. They arouse the lowest qualities in human nature, and produce a condition which is truly shocking. Some of them arouse the filthiest lust, the most intense anger, and passions of a kindred nature. So we may find many of these drugs suitable for persons affected with insanity, whether it be the result of functional or organic, cerebral changes, whether or not it be reflex from irregularities in bodily functions."

The spiritual and emotional symptoms of the animal world are distinct yet complementary to the images of the minerals and plants. The animal poisons are well known for stirring up the instinctual level within human beings and producing "animalistic emotions" with altered states of consciousness.

Instinctive, Subconscious, Animalistic

The instinctive animalistic emotions of the animal remedies are found within all the animal remedies to one degree or another. The virulent poisons like the Insecta, Arachnida, Reptiles and Ophidians produce the most rapidly developing delusions, delirium and dreams. The animal realm is under control of the subconscious mind rather than the rational human spirit. These emotions are seated in the "reptilian brain" which rules over our early evolutionary epochs and are not under the conscious control of the individual ego. The battle to control the "beast" within is an essential theme of the animal world remedies. The old reptilian brain has not changed much since humans lived in caves and is confused by the rapid changes of the last century. The struggle between the animal and human nature within our species is the source of many myths, fables and religious teachings.

Combative, Aggressive, Possessive and Jealous

The animal remedies tend to be dominant, competitive, aggressive (Apis, Androc., Lach., Sep.), envious (Calc., Cench., Lach., Sep..) and jealous (Apis, Bufo, Calc., Cench., Lach.,). This jealousy is of a very sexual nature and they are envious toward other dominant types in the "herd". The animal remedies like to be the leader and will do almost anything to get to the top. The animal temperament lives by the Darwinian law, the survival of the fittest, and tries to control their territory and keep "intruders' out so they collect the best "food" and "breeding stock". In the modern world much of this animal instinct is compensated for by the intellect, but as time passes, the rational spirit loses control to the impulses of the animal realm.

Altered States, Delusions, Heaven or Hell

The animal remedies produce exalted states of fancy (Ambr., Apis, Bufo, Canth., Crot-h., Lac-c., Lach., Sep., Spong., Tarent.) and visions (Calc., Canth., Carb-an., Crot-c., Lach., Sep., Spong., Tarent.). They are also prone to fearful states where they feel threatened. The animal remedies amplify subconscious instincts and undermine the rational spirit producing delusions and delirium (Apis, Canth., Crot-c., Crot-h., Lac-c., Lach., Lat-k., Mosch., Tarent.). The animals have delusions of phantoms (Ambr., Calc., Canth., Carb-an., Lac-c., Lach., Sep., Spong., Tarent.), of persecution (Calc., Crot-h., Lach., Spong.), and that they are sick (Calc., Mosch., Murx., Sep., Tarent.). The Ophidians hear voices (Cench., Crot-c., Crot-h., Elaps, Lach.).

Fear, Fight or Flight

The animal remedies respond to danger with immediate fight or flight. This response is instinctive in nature and takes place with no contemplation. This state is neither like the emotional panic of the plants or the loss of reason seen in the minerals. The animal remedies express a state of high tension, fear, and fright in which the instinct for self-survival overpowers the rational mind (Ambra, Androc., Bufo, Crot-h., Coc-c., Elaps, Lach., Mosch., Murx., Sep., Spong., Ther.).

Violence and Intense Anger

The animal temperament is more apt to fight over sex or territory than over higher principles. When they become angry or afraid they can attack with great ferocity (Bufo, Canth., Coc-c., Crot-h., Form., Lach., Lat-m., Mosch., Sep., Spong.). The animals can be very hard on their own species and will use force to control other submissive creatures. Some will destroy those who are in competition with them for mates, territory, and leadership roles. The animal anger is explosive and very dangerous to self and others.

Excessive Vitality and Perverted Sexual Instinct

The animal remedies mimic plethoric states of vital energy that is seeking an outlet. The animal substances pervert the sexual instinct and produce states of nymphomania, lasciviousness and "satyriasis" (Aster., Bufo, Canth., Lach., Mosch.) ). In the healthy state the animal remedies are vital and sexual and seek release through sexual intercourse or masturbation (Ambr., Apis, Bufo, Lach., Meph., Sep., Tarent.). The animal's desire for sex is physical rather than emotional like the plants or mental like the minerals. The animal remedies have the potential to descend into the lowest levels of human sexual activity and can be completely immoral and shameless (Bufo, Canth., Mosch., Murx., Tarent.).

Drinking and Substance Abuse

The animal remedies have a desire for alcohol and are substance abusers (Bufo, Cocc-c., Crot-h., Lac-c., Lach., Meph., Mosch., Sep). Using alcohol to antidote the effects of snakebite is common to many traditional cultures. Lachesis offers a clear picture of the relationship of the Ophidians to drinking. They crave alcohol because it makes them "feel better". In the beginning drinking is part of an outlet for strong instinctive energy and a way of letting go of tension. It does not take long before the delusions and confusions hidden in their subconscious mind begin to surface. When drunk their minds become a kaleidoscope of strong repressed emotions and carnal desires. This combination may stimulate unsolicited sexual advances or rape while under the influence. Drinking also brings out the kind of violence that leads to full-fledged animal attacks and brutality.

Senility, Madness and Insanity

The animal remedies demonstrate a great number of symptoms similar to madness and insanity (Ambr., Apis, Calc., Canth., Carb-an., Crot-c., Crot-h., Lach., Mosch., Murx., Naja, Sep., Tarent.) These remedies are suitable for mental disorders based on functional changes as well as organic pathology and chronic miasms. Under acute stress or crises the animals tend to become hysterical (Ambr., Bufo, Calc-ostr., Canth., Crot-h., Elaps, Lach., Mosch., Mygal., Sep., Tarent., Ther.). As time goes on and the stress builds their mind become more delusional until they enter true madness. The marine animals (Ambr., Aster., Calc-ostr., Murx., and Sep.), and Amphibia (Bufo) end in exhaustion while the Insecta (Apis, Canth.) tend to amorous frenzy or shamelessness. The animal venoms (Ophidians, Arachnida, Lacertilia) tend to produce altered states with raving, raging, and delirium. The animal remedy's battle for survival ends in the most hideous types of senility, dementia and insanity. The animal instinct for self- preservation is very strong but they sometimes end their torment with suicide (Ambra, Calc-ostr., Crot-h., Lac-d., Lach., Naja, Sep., Tarent.).

Stages of Life

The animal remedies thrive in a competitive environment. In the functional stage the animals are strong, vital and active individuals who are sexy and full of animal magnetism. When this natural power is channeled in creative directions they are capable of more energy output than the average human being. They are ambitious, strong willed, and are not easily defeated. As children they need lots of room and are difficult to keep indoors for long periods of time. They are prone to sibling rivalries, jealousy, and envy. This makes them it difficult for them to get along with other children. In a dysfunctional home or abusive environment they become wild and unruly and may imitate the most negative of behavior. As they are sexually magnetic they may fall victim to sexual abuse. As they grow older sex becomes a power over which they have little control. The animal temperament may have sex for the sake of sex alone. They demand neither the emotional support that the plants need nor the appreciation that the minerals expect.

When the animal remedies are placed under stress they react with crisis much like the plant remedies. This crisis, however, displays dangerous signs and symptoms immediately. The alarm reaction of the animals is violent and potentially destructive. Only the most poisonous plants and minerals approach the rapid destruction that the animal substances and poisons produce. This is why many of the animal remedies are so useful in virulent acute miasms and poisonings of the most dangerous nature.

In the stage of resistance and adaption the protracted battle with the beast within begins. As time goes on their sense of healthy competition descends into unhealthy rivalries, envy, and combativeness. They may intellectually realize their faults but they can't help themselves when they feel challenged. The animal instincts and the lower emotions that they seek to repress drive them to provocative actions. The more stress they experience the more they react from instinct rather than intelligence. Life becomes a struggle that they intend to win at all costs. Their sexuality also transforms from a healthy state of vitality to a desire to conquer and control which makes them jealous of any other potential mates. This leads to constant conflict in the home with angry outbursts and accusations. They have difficulty with other animal types of the same sex. Life becomes a struggle for them and everyone around them.

In the final stage of exhaustion the rational spirit and higher emotions can no longer compensate for the baser instincts and perverted sexuality of the animal realm. At the same time, their former tendency toward altered states of consciousness is transformed into delusional states. Their jealousy now takes on insane forms of suspicion when there is no reason behind such emotions. They now see those who they perceive as a threat as enemies and begin the final battle for supremacy. They do not realize that the true obstacle is the beast within them. Their instinctive fears are projected onto the outer environment and they may become dangerous. The law of the jungle takes over from more civilized norms and they lose what little humanity they still possess.

The above rubrics for the animal family offer a glimpse of the general nature of the animal remedies. Many of the animal remedies are poorly represented in the repertorium. A study of the characteristic symptoms of the animal world and its remedy families helps put these remedies into perspective. Coming lessons in the Genus Materia Medica are:

1. MM, Lesson 5 will highlight the character and symptoms of the nosode remedies.

2. MM, Lesson 6 will be a comparative of the mineral, plant, animal, and nosode groups.

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